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The first library and university in history.
(900 – 612 BCE)

The Extent of the Great Assyrian Empire The Extent of the Great Assyrian Empire

The Assyrian Empire, named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur (Ashur) was centered in northern Mesopotamia. The Assyrians were known for their mastery in battle and their penchant for city-building (such as Nineveh and Kalakh) and by the 9th century BC grew to control Mesopotamia and substantial territory in the greater region. In 626 BC, Nabopolasser, the king of Babylonia threw off Assyrian rule and named Babylon the capital of the empire.

Assyria experienced fluctuating fortunes in the Middle Assyrian period. Assyria had a period of empire under Shamshi-Adad I and Ishme-Dagan in the 19th and 18th centuries BC. Following this, it found itself under Babylonian and Mitanni-Hurrian domination for short periods in the 18th and 15th centuries BC respectively, and another period of great power occurred with the rise of the Middle Assyrian Empire (from 1365 BC to 1056 BC), which included the reigns of great kings, such as Ashur-uballit I, Arik-den-ili, Tukulti-Ninurta I and Tiglath-Pileser I. During this period, Assyria overthrew Mitanni and eclipsed both the Hittite Empire and Egyptian Empire in the Near East.

Beginning with the campaigns of Adad-nirari II from 911 BC, it again became a great power over the next three centuries, overthrowing the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt and conquering Egypt, Babylonia, Elam, Urartu/Armenia,Media, Persia, Mannea, Gutium, Phoenicia/Canaan, Aramea (Syria), Arabia, Israel, Judah, Edom, Moab, Samarra, Cilicia, Cyprus, Chaldea,Nabatea, Commagene, Dilmun, the Hurrians, Sutu and Neo-Hittites, driving the Ethiopians and Nubians from Egypt, defeating the Cimmerians and Scythians and exacting tribute from Phrygia, Magan and Punt among others.

After its fall (between 612 BC and 605 BC), Assyria remained a province and geo-political entity under the Babylonian, Median, Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, Roman and Sassanid empires until the Muslim Arabs conquest of Mesopotamia in the mid-7th century, when it was finally dissolved, after which the remnants of the Assyrian people (by now Christians) gradually became a minority in their homeland.

Timeline of Assyria:

Early Assyria, 2600–2335 BC

Old Assyrian Kingdom, 2025-1393 BC

  • Dynasty of Puzur-Ashur I, 2025–1809 BC
  • Assyrian Empire of Shamshi-Adad I, 1809–1750 BC
  • Assyria under Babylonian domination, 1750–1732 BC
  • Assyrian Adaside dynasty, 1732–1451 BC
  • Assyria in decline, 1450–1393 BC

Middle Assyrian Empire, 1392–1056 BC

  • Assyrian expansion and empire, 1392–1056 BC
  • Assyria in the Ancient Dark Ages, 1055–936 BC

Neo-Assyrian Empire, 911–627 BC

  • Expansion, 911–627 BC
  • Downfall, 626–605 BC
Assyrian Inventions:


  • They invented the first Library
  • They created the worlds first ever University
  • They Created the first ever lens, or telescope some believe
  • They came up with imperial administration, dividing land into territories administered by local governors who report to central authority
  • They were first to use Paved roads
  • The 360 degrees circle/ Longitude and Latitude was first used in Assyria
  • First canal System.
  • First people to come up with the use of Locks and keys


Assyrian Art and Architecture:


The above Video is a property and a courtesy from Kais J.Ishak (All Rights Reserved to the Author )

The above Video is a property and a courtesy from Kais J.Ishak (All Rights Reserved to the Author )